References for BioDiet – Chapter 4

The CDC reports that the average waist circumference of American adults increased by about 1.2 inches between 1999 and 2011. Some demographic groups, like African American women in their 30s, saw their average waist size grow by nearly 4.6 inches during that time.

Mean Body Weight, Height, Waist Circumference, and Body Mass Index Among Adults: United States,1999–2000 Through 2015–2016
CDC Statistics Report Indicates Increased Waist Size, BMI for Many US Adults
Waist Size Matters

Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in both the United States and Canada and pre-diabetes has skyrocketed. The unprecedented rate at which these numbers have risen led World Health Organization director general Margaret Chan to describe the epidemics of diabetes and obesity as “a slow-motion disaster.”

Obesity and Diabetes: The Slow‐Motion Disaster

According to a study published in The Lancet: Diabetes and Endocrinology, the estimated global cost of diabetes in 2015 was $1.31 trillion. In America alone, it is expected that, by 2030, the total economic burden of diabetes will reach $622 billion, roughly equivalent to the 2018 US defense budget.

The global economic burden of diabetes in adults aged 20–79 years: a cost-of-illness study
DoD Releases Fiscal Year 2018 Budget Proposal

Ketogenic nutritional therapy is used in approximately 250 hospitals around the world and is recognized as a standard treatment for some forms of epilepsy. Much of the credit for the diet’s resurgence goes to the Charlie Foundation for Ketogenic Therapies.


Of particular importance: during the writing of this book, the diabetes associations in Australia, New Zealand and, most recently, the United States issued policy statements supporting low-carbohydrate diets (including ketogenic diets) as effective measures for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes Australia Position Statement on low carbohydrate diets
Very low-carbohydrate diets in the management of diabetes revisited
Very low-carbohydrate diets in the management of diabetes revisited
2018: A Paramount Year for Low-Carbohydrate Diets for Diabetes
Very Low Carbohydrate Diets for Diabetes (ADA 2018)
Nutrition Therapy for Adults With Diabetes or Prediabetes: A Consensus Report
Carbohydrate Counting
Types of Carbohydrates